FWGNA > Alphabetical Species Index
Species Index with Synonyms
Listed below are the 89 species and subspecies currently covered by the Freshwater Gastropods of North America Project, together with all generic and specific synonyms of which we are aware in the modern literature.

Biological taxonomy is a hypothesis regarding the evolutionary relationships of populations. Thus there is never an absolutely “correct” scientific name for any organism, although at any point in time there may a preferred name, and a series of names that have lost favor with the advance of science. Older, cast-off names become “synonyms.” A proliferation of synonyms is a healthy indicator of an active research interest in a group of organisms.

Synonyms may also be viewed negatively, however, as an impediment to law and regulation. For this reason, natural resource agencies generally favor standardized taxonomies, such as that offered for mollusks by Turgeon and colleagues (1998).  Although well meaning, efforts at taxonomic standardization are science-killers, and should be resisted.  

Genus Species FWGNA Taxonomy
Amnicola grana see Lyogyrus granum
Amnicola limosa
Amnicola lustrica see Marstonia lustrica
Anculosa   see Leptoxis
Aplexa elongata see A. hypnorum
Aplexa hypnorum
Athearnia anthonyi see Leptoxis crassa
Australorbis   see Biomphalaria
Bellamya chinensis
Bellamya japonica
Bellamya malleata see B. chinensis
Biomphalaria obstructa see B. havanensis
Bithynia tentaculata
Campeloma crassulum see C. decisum
Campeloma decisum
Campeloma geniculatum see C. decisum
Campeloma integra see C. decisum
Campeloma limosa see C. decisum
Campeloma limum see C. decisum
Campeloma rufum see C. decisum
Cincinnatia sp. see Floridobia
Cipangopaludina   see Bellamya
Clappia clappi see C. umbilicata
Clappia umbilicata
Elimia   see Pleurocera
Ferrissia fragilis
Ferrissia hendersoni see F. fragilis
Ferrissia parallelus see F. rivularis
Ferrissia rivularis
Floridobia spp.
Fontigens bottimeri
Fontigens morrisoni
Fontigens nickliniana
Fontigens orolibas
Fontigens tartarea
Fossaria   see Lymnaea
Galba   see Lymnaea
Gillia altilis
Goniobasis   see Pleurocera
Gyraulus deflectus
Gyraulus hirsutus see G. deflectus
Gyraulus parvus
Haitia   see Physa
Hebetancylus excentricus
Helisoma anceps
Helisoma campanulatum
Helisoma eucosmium
Helisoma magnifica
Helisoma pilsbryi see H. trivolvis
Helisoma trivolvis
Holsingeria unthanksensis
Hydrobiajenkinsisee P. antipodarium
Io fluviatilis
Laevapex diaphanus see L. fuscus
Laevapex fuscus
Laevapexpeninsulaesee L. fuscus
Leptoxis anthonyi see L. crassa
Leptoxis carinata
Leptoxis crassa
Leptoxis dilatata see L. carinata
Leptoxis nickliniana see L. carinata
Leptoxis praerosa
Leptoxis subglobosa see L. praerosa
Leptoxis virgata see L. carinata
Lioplax subcarinata
Lithasia lima see L. verrucosa
Lithasia salebrosa see L. verrucosa
Lithasia verrucosa
Littorinidops tenuipes
Lymnaea catascopium
Lymnaea caperata
Lymnaea columella
Lymnaea cubensis
Lymnaea dalli see L. humilis
Lymnaea elodes
Lymnaea emarginata see L. catascopium
Lymnaea exigua see L. humilis
Lymnaeaexilissee L. elodes
Lymnaea humilis
Lymnaea modicella see L. humilis
Lymnaea obrussa see L. humilis
Lymnaea parva see L. humilis
Lymnaeareflexasee L. elodes
Lymnaea rustica see L. humilis
Lyogyrus granum
Lyogyrus latus
Lyogyrus pupoideus see L. granum
Lyogyrus retromargo see L. granum
Lyogyrus walkeri see L. granum
Marstonia agarhecta
Marstonia arga
Marstonia decepta see M. lustrica
Marstonia gaddisorum
Marstonia halcyon
Marstonia lustrica
Marstonia ogmorhaphe ("ogmorphaphe")
Marstonia perlustrica see M. lustrica
Menetus alabamensis see M. dilatatus
Menetus brogniartianus see M. dilatatus
Menetus dilatatus
Menetus exacuous see Promenetus exacuous
Micromenetus   see Menetus
Mudalia   see Leptoxis
Nitocris   see Leptoxis
Notogillia sathon
Oxytrema    see Pleurocera
Paludina    see Viviparus
Physa acuta
Physa ancillaria see P. gyrina
Physa aurea see P. gyrina
Physa carolinae
Physa cubensis see P. acuta
Physa gyrina
Physa hendersoni see P. pomilia
Physa heterostropha see P. acuta
Physa heterostropha pomilia see P. pomilia
Physa integra see P. acuta
Physa pomilia
Physa sayii see P. gyrina
Physa species A see P. carolinae
Physa vernalis
Physella   see Physa
Physodon   see Physa
Planorbella   see Helisoma
Planorbula armigera
Planorbula jenksii see P. armigera
Pleurocera acutocarinata see P.clavaeformis clavaeformis
Pleurocera albanyensis see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera arachnoidea ("arachnoides") see P. troostiana
Pleurocera aterina see P. simplex
Pleurocera boykiniana see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera caelatura see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera canaliculata see P.canaliculata canaliculata
Pleurocera canaliculata canaliculata
Pleurocera canaliculata pyrenellum
Pleurocera caternaria see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera catenaria dislocata
Pleurocera christyi see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera clavaeformis see P.clavaeformis clavaeformis
Pleurocera clavaeformis clavaeformis
Pleurocera clavaeformis unciale
Pleurocera curtum (curta) see P. clavaeformis unciale
Pleurocera darwini see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera dislocata see P. catenaria dislocata
Pleurocera ebenum
Pleurocera floridensis timidus
Pleurocera gabbiana
Pleurocera georgiana see P. modesta
Pleurocera gerhardtii see P. modesta
Pleurocera glarea see P. floridensis timidus
Pleurocera gradatum see P. clavaeformis unciale
Pleurocera hastatum see P. clavaeformis unciale
Pleurocera induta see P. floridensis timidus
Pleurocera interrupta see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera laqueata
Pleurocera lecontiana see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera modesta
Pleurocera mutabilis mutabilis see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera mutabilis timidus see P. floridensis timidus
Pleurocera nobile see P.canaliculata canaliculata
Pleurocera parvum see P. clavaeformis unciale
Pleurocera porrecta see P. troostiana
Pleurocera postelli see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera proxima
Pleurocera pyrenellum see P. canaliculata pyrenellum
Pleurocera rubella see P. troostiana
Pleurocera semicarinata
Pleurocera simplex
Pleurocera simplex, "skinny form" see P. gabbiana
Pleurocera spinella see P. troostiana
Pleurocera striatula see P. troostiana
Pleurocera strigosa see P. troostiana
Pleurocera suturalis see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera symmetrica see P. proxima
Pleurocera teres see P. troostiana
Pleurocera timida exul see P. floridensis timidus
Pleurocera timida timida see P. floridensis timidus
Pleurocera trochiformis see P. canaliculata pyrenellum
Pleurocera troostiana
Pleurocera unciale ("uncialis") see P. clavaeformis unciale
Pleurocera viennaensis see P. catenaria catenaria
Pleurocera virginica
Pleurocera viridulum see P. clavaeformis unciale
Pleurocera walkeri see P. clavaeformis unciale
Pomacea insularum see P. maculata
Pomacea maculata
Pomacea paludosa
Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis
Pomatiopsis hinkleyi see P. lapidaria
Pomatiopsis lapidaria
Pomatiopsis praelonga see P. lapidaria
Potamopyrgusjenkinsisee P. antipodarum
Promenetus exacuous
Pseudosuccinea   see Lymnaea
Pyrgulopsis lustrica see Marstonia lustrica
Segmentina   see Planorbula
Somatogyrus alcoviensis see S. virginicus
Somatogyrus georgianus see S. virginicus
Somatogyrus parvulus
Somatogyrus rheophilus see S. virginicus
Somatogyrus pennsylvanicus
Somatogyrus tenax see S. virginicus
Somatogyrus virginicus
Spilochlamys turgida
Spirodon   see Leptoxis
Stagnicola   see Lymnaea
Taphius   see Biomphalaria
Valvata bicarinata
Valvata tricarinata
Viviparus georgianus
Viviparus intertextus
Viviparus subpurpureus